THE ROLE OF ACADEMIC SAMPLES IN VISUAL CULTURE AND THEIR HISTORICAL CONTEXT
Keywords:Academic samples, art academies, copies, mannerism
Academic samples are a specific cultural phenomenon created by art academies since the beginnings of art education in the late 16th century. As a fundamental method of teaching and learning it was an integral part of art education untill the age of Modernism. Although the culture of academic samples has been strongly criticized for its uniformity and eclecticism, the entire concept of providing the samples of distinguished artworks as a reference source in studying the Fine Arts still seems valid. The practical application of the academic samples is twofold – (1) it ensures the permanence and consistency of the academic training and (2) focuses the student’s attention to the aesthetic experience of the object in question. Academic samples are both physical objects, usually copies of the original artworks, and immaterial conceptions on the overall appearance of objects. The latter aspect is possibly the most disputable one because it may indoctrinate the student’s imagination with non-specific images of a single aesthetical trend. Although every period of cultural history provides its own theoretical support to the concept of academic samples, the main potential value of use of sample objects, when they are consciously selected, is that it provides the resource for visual thinking and sharpens one’s attentiveness towards the observable object or space.
Barasch, M. (1985) Theories of Art, 1: From Plato to Winckelmann. New York; London: Routledge.
Blunt, A. (1962) Artistic Theory in Italy 1450-1600. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.
Deacon, D. (2008) Why Counting Counts. In: Pickering, M. (ed.). Research Methods for Cultural Studies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
Efland, A.D. (1990) A History of Art Education: Intellectual and Social Currents in Teaching the Visual Arts. New York; London: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
Haskell, F., Penny, N. (2006) Taste and the Antique. The Lure of Classical Sculptures 1500 – 1900. New Haven; London: Yale University Press.
Janson, H. W., Cauman, S. (1971) A Basic History of Art. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J.; Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York.
Meiland, J. W. (1983) Originals, Copies, and Aesthetic Value. In: Lamarque, P., Olsen, S. H. (eds). (2008) Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art – The Analytic Tradition. Malden, MA, USA; Oxford, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Panofsky, E. (1955) Meaning in the Visual Arts. Chicago: The Univeristy of Chicago Press (Phoenix edition 1982)
Perry, G., Cunningham, C. (eds) (1999) Academies, Museums and Canons of Art. Yale University Press; The Open University.
Pevsner, N. (1940) Academies of Art Past and Present. New York: Cambridge at the University Press.
Молева, Н., Белютин Э. (1963) Русская художественная школа первой половины XIX века. M.: Искусство.
Copyright (c) 2022 Krustpunkti: kultūras un mākslas pētījumi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.